Writing at key stages 1 and 2 consists of two dimensions:
- transcription (spelling and handwriting)
- composition (articulating ideas and structuring them in speech and writing).
Writing down ideas fluently depends on effective transcription: that is, on spelling quickly and accurately through knowing the relationship between sounds and letters (phonics) and understanding the morphology (word structure) and orthography (spelling structure) of words. Effective composition involves forming, articulating and communicating ideas, and then organising them coherently for a reader. This requires clarity, awareness of the audience, purpose and context, and an increasingly wide knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. Writing also depends on fluent, legible and, eventually, speedy handwriting. High expectations in handwriting are developed and maintained from EYFS upwards, with emphasis placed on correct letter and number formation being developed and maintained in all writing.
Lessons are taught through the use of high quality core texts, which are linked to the curriculum topic. The teaching sequence begins with the immersion of the children within the text through the use of an engaging starting point, drama, speaking and listening activities, and gathering initial ideas. Grammar objectives are then taught and developed in the context of the text with the children then applying these skills by writing a variety of different text types. This includes through teacher modelling, supported and shared writing, and task-led independent writing. Children are given regular opportunities to write for different purposes and audiences across the curriculum, as well as developing their ability to write at length.
Spelling, vocabulary, grammar, punctuation and glossary
Opportunities to enhance pupils’ vocabulary arise naturally from their reading and writing. As vocabulary increases, pupils will learn to understand the relationships between words, how to understand nuances in meaning, and how to develop their understanding of, and ability to use, figurative language. Pupils will also learn how to work out and clarify the meanings of unknown words and words with more than one meaning.